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محمد جواد یوسف زاده طارمسر ی - میرزا حبیب الله رشتی
 
محمد جواد یوسف زاده طارمسر ی

آیت الله العظمی میرزا حبیب الله رشتی

در سال 1234 هجری قمری در املش بدنیا آمد.پدرش محمد علی خان قوچانی از مومنین وحکام منطقه گیلان بود.

 

 

آیت الله العظمی میرزا حبیب الله رشتی در سال 1234 هجری قمری در املش به دنیا آمد. پدرش مرحوم محمدعلی خان قوچانی از مومنین و حکام منطقه گیلان بود.

مقام علمی

مرحوم رشتی تحصیلات ابتداییش را در همان املش و زیر نظر معلمان و مدرسان مومن و دانا آغاز کرد و در سن دوازده سالگی به رشت عزیمت کرد تا از مدرسان متبحرتری استفاده نماید.

شیخ حبیب الله در هجده سالگی عازم حوزه علمیه قزوین شد. او در قزوین حدود هفت سال از محضر درس شیخ عبدالكریم ایروانی استفاده نمود. میرزا در بیست و پنج سالگی به مقام اجتهاد نائل گردید و به املش عزیمت کرد و مشغول امور دینی مردم آن دیار شد.

شیخ حبیب الله در سال 1263 قمری قصد عزیمت به نجف اشرف کرد تا در آن حوزه از علمای بزرگ آن زمان بهره برد. که در بدو ورود به نجف اشرف در درس شیخ محمد حسن نجفی صاحب جواهر وارد شد و سه سال از محضر ایشان استفاده کرد و از دست ایشان نیز اجازه اجتهاد دریافت نمود. پس از آن به درس شیخ انصاری وارد شد و تا آخر عمر بابرکت شیخ انصاری از شاگردان ممتاز درس وی بود.

با درگذشت شیخ مرتضی انصاری، مجلس تدریس به میرزا حبیب الله رشتی اختصاص یافت و هر روز صدها نفر از علما و بزرگان عرصه دانش در حلقه درس وی شرکت می‏کردند.

به حق مرحوم میرزای رشتی بعد از شیخ انصاری ازعلمای درجه اول و مراجع بزرگ به شمار می‏رفت ولی خود معتقد بود که میرزای شیرازی بهتر از هر کس دیگر می‏تواند رهبری مذهبی و سیاسی تشیع را عهده دار شود. به همین دلیل هنگامی که علما و دانشمندان، مردم را به تقلید از میرزا حبیب الله رشتی ارجاع دادند، وی نپذیرفت و اعلام کرد که دنیای اسلام به مرجع سیاستمداری نیاز دارد که بتواند توطئه‏های دشمنان را خنثی کند و میرزای شیرازی در این کار از همه مناسب‏تر است.

شاگردان

مرحوم میرزا حبیب الله رشتی در طول عمر بابرکت خود شاگردان مهم و تاثیرگذاری را تربیت کرد که برخی از آن بزرگان عبارتند از آیات عظام:

سید محمد كاظم یزدی، آقا ضیاء الدین عراقی، حاج میرزا حسین نائینی، شیخ شعبان دیوشلی، شیخ عبدالله مازندرانی، شیخ فضل الله نوری، حاج آقا میر بحرالعلوم رشتی، شیخ علی رشتی، شیخ عبدالغنی بادكوبه‌ای، سید ابوالحسن اصفهانی، سید ابوالقاسم اشكوری و بسیاری از بزرگان دیگر.

تالیفات

آیت الله العظمی شیخ حبیب الله رشتی دارای آثار نوشتاری بسیاری در علوم متفاوت است که برخی از این تالیفات عبارتند از:

رساله فی الضد و اقتضاء الامر بشیء النهی عنه و عدمه، التعادل و التراجیح، بدایع الافكار، اجتماع الامر و النهی، رساله فی مقدمه الواجب، رساله فی المشتق، التقریرات در علم اصول.

كتاب الطهاره الحاشیه علی المكاسب، كتاب الزكاه، كتاب الاجاره، الالتقاط، كتاب العضب، كتاب القضاء و الشهادات، الوقوف و الصدقات، رساله فی اللباس المشكوك، حاشیه علی منهج الرشاد، حاشیه علی نجاه العباد، حاشیه علی النخبه در علم فقه.

حواشی بر تفسیر جلالین در علم تفسیر و الامامه، كاشف الظلام فی حل معضلات الكلام در علم کلام.

اخلاق میرزا حبیب الله

مرحوم رشتی در کنار مقام علمی خود شخصیتی عارف و زاهد داشت که به برخی از مواردی که دال بر زهد و خصوصیت فردی ایشان دارد، اشاره خواهیم داشت:

احترام و سپاسگزاری او در حق پدر و مادر بی‌نظیر بود، بنا بر قولی مرحوم رشتی نمازهای پدر و مادر خود را سه بار خواند. یك بار به تقلید از مراجع آنان و دوبار به اجتهاد خودش.

مرحوم رشتی همواره یاد خدای متعال بود و از هر فرصتی برای ذكر وتسبیح و قرائت قرآن كریم بهره می‌جست. حتی هنگامی كه برای تدریس به سوی حرم مطهر می‌رفت وضو می‌گرفت و سوره‌ یس را در راه می‌خواند تا به در قبله صحن حضرت امیر(ع) می‌رسید.

تواضع و فروتنی در همه شئون میرزا آشکار بود. در پی سفر ایشان به ایران، حوزه درسش در نجف تعطیل شد و طلاب به وساطت شیخ حسن مامقانی برنامه سفر دوم ایشان را به ایران درخواست کردند، که میرزا نیز به مرحوم مامقانی اینطور خطاب کرد: "چون شما مجتهد عادل هستید، حكمتان را واجب الاطاعه می‌دانم".

میرزا حبیب الله پس از مرگ پدرش كه حاكم منطقه بود برای امور تدفین به گیلان سفر کرد، اما اختلاف برادران بر سر ارث موجب بازگشت او به نجف اشرف شد. او با اینكه زندگی بسیار فقیرانه‌ای داشت از سهم ارث چشم پوشید. آورده‏اند که پس از رسیدن به نجف، برای تأمین معاش، بتدریج لوازم زندگی را یكی پس از دیگری فروخت به گونه‌ای كه درگرمای طاقت فرسای تابستان از خرید آب نیز عاجز بود.

مرحوم میرزا با آنکه دریافت وجوه شرعیه یک امر مرسوم بود و هست ولی هیچ گاه وجوه شرعیه را نمی‌پذیرفت. نقل می‌كنند مردی ثروتمند از هند برای پرداخت وجوه شرعی به زیارت میرزای رشتی آمده بود ولی مرحوم رشتی چنان بی اعتنایی و عصبانیت از خود نشان داد که اطرافیان همگی متعجب شدند و ایشان فرموده بود: چاره‌ای جز عصبانیت نبود.

وفات

سرانجام مرحوم آیت الله العظمی میرزا حبیب الله رشتی در چهاردهم جمادی الثانی سال 1312 هجری قمری در نجف اشرف از دنیا رفت و پیکر پاکش را در یکی از بقعه‏های حرم حضرت امیر(ع) به خاک سپردند. و شیعیان شهرهای مختلف از جمله نجف، تهران و مشهد در سوگ فراغ این عالم نستوه به عزاداری پرداختند.

منابع


نور علم، شماره چهل و دوم.

ریحانة الادب، محمدعلی مدرس تبریزی، تهران، شفق.

سیمای فرزانگان، جعفر سبحانی، قم، موسسه امام صادق.

گنجینه دانشمندان، محمدشریف رازی؛ تهران، کتابفروشی اسلامیه.
منبع:http://www.ahlulbaytportal.com
نگاشته توسط:حجه الاسلام سجادرضائی


نوع مطلب : شخصیت هادینی ملی و علمی، 
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